What is Periodontal Disease

Periodontal Disease

Many people are familiar with the term gingivitis, which is a common form of gum disease that is usually caused by the buildup of plaque on the teeth and gums. This causes irritation, redness, swelling in the gum tissue around the base of the teeth, and may also cause the gums to bleed.

Gingivitis is actually the early stage of periodontal disease, a condition that needs to be taken seriously to ensure your continued oral health.

What is Periodontal Disease?

Periodontal Disease may begin with gingivitis, but it can progress to a more serious form called periodontitis. Once it reaches this stage, the irritated, infected gums can pull away from the tooth and there may be some bone loss. This can result in loose teeth that may eventually fall out.

In addition to potentially causing tooth loss, the bacteria responsible for periodontal disease may enter the bloodstream through your gum tissue, possibly affecting other parts of the body. As a result, other conditions may arise such as coronary artery disease, respiratory disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and issues controlling blood sugar levels for diabetics.

Periodontal disease is seen primarily in adults and, along with tooth decay, is one of the most serious threats to your dental health.

Risk Factors for Periodontal Disease

Several factors can increase your risk for periodontal disease. Aside from gingivitis, gum disease and poor oral care habits, some of the potential triggers include:

periodontal disease probe
Dentist holding teeth model denture, showing with diagnostic periodontal probe and explaing to the patient what pulpitis looks like.
  • Smoking
  • Chewing tobacco
  • Genetics
  • Obesity
  • Recreational drug use including smoking marijuana and vaping
  • Hormonal changes, including those that come about due to pregnancy or menopause
  • Medications that cause dry mouth
  • Leukemia and other conditions that result in decreased immunity
  • Certain diseases such as diabetes
  • Poor nutrition

How to Treat Periodontal Disease

Treatment for periodontal disease may come from a dentist, dental hygienist, or periodontist and involves thoroughly cleaning the pockets around the teeth. Provided that the disease is not too advanced, some of the treatment options are not very invasive and include:

  • Scaling

    This is done to remove tartar and bacteria from the surface of the tooth. This can be done with instruments, a laser, or an ultrasonic device.

  • Root planing

    Planing is performed to smooth the surface of the roots, thus discouraging the buildup of tartar and bacteria.

  • Antibiotics

    Medication can be used to help control the infection. This may take the form of topicals (mouth rinses or gel placed directly into the periodontal pockets following a thorough cleaning), or oral antibiotics (pills).

In more advanced or severe cases, surgical intervention may be required. This may include the following:

  • Flap surgery (pocket reduction surgery)

    This treatment involves making an incision in the gums, folding the tissue back, and exposing the root to allow for scaling and planing.

  • Soft tissue grafts

    Tissue is taken from your palate or another source and attached to the affected area to help prevent further recession of the gums and to cover exposed roots.

  • Bone grafting This is done when periodontitis has resulted in the loss of bone surrounding your tooth root. It may use small fragments of your own bone, synthetic material, or donated bone.periodontal disease graft

Prevention of Periodontal Disease

Although periodontal disease is very common, it is also largely preventable. Your best defense against periodontitis is to practice good oral hygiene habits at home visit and to your dentist regularly for cleanings.

For more information concerning periodontal disease, contact us today.

Periodontal disease exam

What is Periodontal (Gum) Disease?

The term “periodontal”means “around the tooth.” Periodontal disease (also known as periodontitis and gum disease) is a common inflammatory condition which affects the supporting and surrounding soft tissues of the tooth; also the jawbone itself when in its most advanced stages.

Periodontal disease is most often preceded by gingivitis which is a bacterial infection of the gum tissue. A bacterial infection affects the gums when the toxins contained in plaque begin to irritate and inflame the gum tissues. Once this bacterial infection colonizes in the gum pockets between the teeth, it becomes much more difficult to remove and treat. Periodontal disease is a progressive condition that eventually leads to the destruction of the connective tissue and jawbone. If left untreated, it can lead to shifting teeth, loose teeth and eventually tooth loss.

Periodontal disease is the leading cause of tooth loss among adults in the developed world and should always be promptly treated.

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Types of Periodontal Disease

When left untreated, gingivitis (mild gum inflammation) can spread to below the gum line. When the gums become irritated by the toxins contained in plaque, a chronic inflammatory response causes the body to break down and destroy its own bone and soft tissue. There may be little or no symptoms as periodontal disease causes the teeth to separate from the infected gum tissue. Deepening pockets between the gums and teeth are generally indicative that soft tissue and bone is being destroyed by periodontal disease.

Here are some of the most common types of periodontal disease:

  • Chronic periodontitis – Inflammation within supporting tissues cause deep pockets and gum recession. It may appear the teeth are lengthening, but in actuality, the gums (gingiva) are receding. This is the most common form of periodontal disease and is characterized by progressive loss of attachment, interspersed with periods of rapid progression.
  • Aggressive periodontitis – This form of gum disease occurs in an otherwise clinically healthy individual. It is characterized by rapid loss of gum attachment, chronic bone destruction and familial aggregation.
  • Necrotizing periodontitis – This form of periodontal disease most often occurs in individuals suffering from systemic conditions such as HIV, immunosuppression and malnutrition. Necrosis (tissue death) occurs in the periodontal ligament, alveolar bone and gingival tissues.
  • Periodontitis caused by systemic disease – This form of gum disease often begins at an early age. Medical condition such as respiratory disease, diabetes and heart disease are common cofactors.
  • Treatment for Periodontal Disease

    There are many surgical and nonsurgical treatments the periodontist may choose to perform, depending upon the exact condition of the teeth, gums and jawbone. A complete periodontal exam of the mouth will be done before any treatment is performed or recommended.

    Here are some of the more common treatments for periodontal disease:

  • Scaling and root planing – In order to preserve the health of the gum tissue, the bacteria and calculus (tartar) which initially caused the infection, must be removed. The gum pockets will be cleaned and treated with antibiotics as necessary to help alleviate the infection. A prescription mouthwash may be incorporated into daily cleaning routines.
  • Tissue regeneration – When the bone and gum tissues have been destroyed, regrowth can be actively encouraged using grafting procedures. A membrane may be inserted into the affected areas to assist in the regeneration process.
  • Pocket elimination surgery – Pocket elimination surgery (also known as flap surgery) is a surgical treatment which can be performed to reduce the pocket size between the teeth and gums. Surgery on the jawbone is another option which serves to eliminate indentations in the bone which foster the colonization of bacteria.
  • Dental implants – When teeth have been lost due to periodontal disease, the aesthetics and functionality of the mouth can be restored by implanting prosthetic teeth into the jawbone. Tissue regeneration procedures may be required prior to the placement of a dental implant in order to strengthen the bone.
  • Ask your dentist if you have questions or concerns about periodontal disease, periodontal treatment, or dental implants.

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